Studies and Findings

Studies on barriers to access to safe, legal abortion

Gestational age limit

Mandatory Waiting Period

Conscientious objection

  • Berer M. Termination of pregnancy as emergency obstetric care: the interpretation of Catholic health policy and the consequences for pregnant women: an analysis of the death of Savita Halappanavar in Ireland and similar cases. Reprod Health Matters 2013; 21: 9–17.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23684182
  • Campbell M. Conscientious objection and the Council of Europe: The right to conscientious objection in lawful medical care Resolution 1763 (2010) Resolution adopted by the Council of Europe’s Parliamentary Assembly. Med Law Rev 2011; 19: 467–75.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21798996
  • Chavkin W, Leitman L, Polin K, for Global Doctors for Choice. Conscientious objection and refusal to provide reproductive healthcare: A White Paper examining prevalence, health consequences, and policy responses. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2013; 123: S41–56.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24332234
  • De Zordo S. Interruption volontaire de grossesse et clause de conscience en Italie et en Espagne, entre droits des femmes et « droits » du fœtus/patient. Sociol Santé; 38: 107–29.
  • De Zordo S, Mishtal J, Anton L. A Fragmented Landscape Abortion Governance and Protest Logics in Europe. Berghahn Books, 2016. https://www.berghahnbooks.com/title/DeZordoFragmented
  • Fiala C, Gemzell Danielsson K, Heikinheimo O, Guðmundsson JA, Arthur J. Yes we can! Successful examples of disallowing ‘conscientious objection’ in reproductive health care. Eur J Contracept Reprod Heal Care 2016; 21: 201–6.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26838273
  • Kibsgaard Nordberg EM, Skirbekk H, Magelssen M. Conscientious objection to referrals for abortion: pragmatic solution or threat to women’s rights? BMC Med Ethics 2014; 15.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24571955
  • Lertxundi R, Ibarrondo O, Merki-Feld GS, Rey-Novoa M, Rowlands S, Mar J. Proposal to inform European institutions regarding the regulation of conscientious objection to abortion. Eur J Contracept Reprod Heal Care 2016; 213: 198–200.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26986562
  • Morrell KM, Chavkin W. Conscientious objection to abortion and reproductive healthcare: a review of recent literature and implications for adolescents. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2015; 27: 333–8.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26241174

Stigma

  • De Zordo S. From women’s ‘irresponsibility’ to foetal ‘patienthood’: Obstetricians-gynaecologists’ perspectives on abortion and its stigmatisation in Italy and Cataluña. Glob Public Heal An Int J Res Policy Pract 2017; 1–13.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28278744
  • De Zordo S, Mishtal J. Physicians and Abortion: Provision, Political Participation and Conflicts on the Ground-The Cases of Brazil and Poland. Women’s Heal Issues 2011; 21: S32–6.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21530836

Other barriers

  • Cochrane RA, Cameron ST. Attitudes of Scottish abortion care providers towards provision of abortion after 16 weeks’ gestation within Scotland. Eur J Contracept Reprod Heal Care 2013; 18: 215–20.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23521135
  • De Zordo S, Mishtal J. Physicians and Abortion: Provision, Political Participation and Conflicts on the Ground-The Cases of Brazil and Poland. Women’s Heal Issues 2011; 21: S32–6.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21530836
  • Doran F, Nancarrow S. Barriers and facilitators of access to first-trimester abortion services for women in the developed world: a systematic review. J Fam Plan Reprod Heal Care 2015; 41: 170–80.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26106103

Addressing barriers

  • Caird L, Cameron ST, Hough T, Mackay L, Glasier A. Initiatives to close the gap in inequalities in abortion provision in a remote and rural UK setting. J Fam Plan Reprod Heal Care 2015; 42: 68 LP-70.
    https://jfprhc.bmj.com/content/42/1/68

Studies on abortion travel in Europe

  • Aiken ARA, Gomperts R, Trussell J. Experiences and characteristics of women seeking and completing at-home medical termination of pregnancy through online telemedicine in Ireland and Northern Ireland: a population-based analysis. BJOG An Int J Obstet Gynaecol 2017; 124: 1208–15.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27748001
  • Bloomer F, O’Dowd K. Restricted access to abortion in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland: exploring abortion tourism and barriers to legal reform. Health Sex. 2014; 16: 366–80.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24617662
  • Caird L, Cameron ST, Hough T, Mackay L, Glasier A. Initiatives to close the gap in inequalities in abortion provision in a remote and rural UK setting. J Fam Plan Reprod Heal Care 2015; 42: 68 LP-70.
    https://jfprhc.bmj.com/content/42/1/68
  • Gerdts C, De Zordo S, Mishtal J, Barr-Walker J, Lohr, Lohr PA. Experiences of women who travel to England for abortions: an exploratory pilot study. Eur J Contracept Reprod Heal Care 2016; 21: 401–7.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27539129
  • Loeber O, Wijsen C. Factors Influencing the Percentage of Second Trimester Abortions in the Netherlands Factors Influencing the Percentage of Second Trimester Abortions in the Netherlands. Reprod Heal Matters 2008; 16: 31–30.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18772081
  • Rossiter A. Ireland’s hidden diaspora: the ‘abortion trail’ and the making of a London-Irish underground 1980–2000. IASC Publishing. 2009.
  • Rossiter A, Sexton M. The other Irish journey: A survey update of Northern Irish women attending British abortion clinics, 2000/2001. 2000. https://www.prochoiceforum.org.uk/download/irish_document.pdf

Studies on barriers to abortion care and abortion travel by country

France

Ireland

  • Aiken ARA, Gomperts R, Trussell J. Experiences and characteristics of women seeking and completing at-home medical termination of pregnancy through online telemedicine in Ireland and Northern Ireland: a population-based analysis. BJOG An Int J Obstet Gynaecol 2017; 124: 1208–15.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27748001
  • Berer M. Termination of pregnancy as emergency obstetric care: the interpretation of Catholic health policy and the consequences for pregnant women:an analysis of the death of Savita Halappanavar in Ireland and similar cases. Reprod Health Matters 2013; 21: 9–17.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23684182
  • Bloomer F, O’Dowd K. Restricted access to abortion in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland: exploring abortion tourism and barriers to legal reform. Health Sex. 2014; 16: 366–80.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24617662
  • Gilmartin M, White A. Interrogating Medical Tourism: Ireland, Abortion, and Mobility Rights. Signs J Women Cult Soc 2010; 36: 275–80.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21114071

  • Mishtal J. Quiet Contestations of Irish Abortion Law: Abortion Politics in Flux? In: Transcending Borders: Abortion in the Past and Present, Pelgrave Macmillan 2017.

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-48399-3_12

  • Rossiter A. Ireland’s hidden diaspora: the ‘abortion trail’ and the making of a London-Irish underground 1980–2000. IASC Publishing. 2009.
  • Rossiter A, Sexton M. The other Irish journey: A survey update of Northern Irish women attending British abortion clinics, 2000/2001. 2000. https://www.prochoiceforum.org.uk/download/irish_document.pdf
  • Smyth, L. ‘And Nobody Was Any the Wiser’: Irish Abortion Rights and the European Union. In: Sexual Politics and the European Union, Berghahn Books 1996: 109-130.

Poland

Italy

  • Chavkin W, Swerdlow L, Fifield J. Regulation of conscientious objection to abortion: An international comparative multiple-case study. Health Hum Rights 2017; 19: 55–68. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5473038/
  • De Zordo S. From women’s ‘irresponsibility’ to foetal ‘patienthood’: Obstetricians-gynaecologists’ perspectives on abortion and its stigmatisation in Italy and Cataluña. Glob Public Heal An Int J Res Policy Pract 2017; March:1–13.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28278744
  • De Zordo S. Interruption volontaire de grossesse et clause de conscience en Italie et en Espagne, entre droits des femmes et « droits » du fœtus/patient. Sociol Santé; 38: 107–29.
  • De Zordo S. ‘Good doctors do not object’: Obstetricians-Gynaecolosists’ Perspectives on Conscientious Objection to Abortion Care and their Engagement with Pro-abortion Rights Protests in Italy. In: A Fragmented Landscape: Abortion Governance and Protest Logics in Europe. Oxford and New York: Berghahn Books, 2016
    https://www.berghahnbooks.com/title/DeZordoFragmented#toc
  • Morrell KM, Chavkin W. Conscientious objection to abortion and reproductive healthcare: a review of recent literature and implications for adolescents. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2015; 27: 333–8.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26241174

Netherlands

  • Loeber O, Wijsen C. Factors Influencing the Percentage of Second Trimester Abortions in the Netherlands Factors Influencing the Percentage of Second Trimester Abortions in the Netherlands. Reprod Heal Matters 2008; 16: 31–30.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18772081

Spain

  • De Zordo S. From women’s ‘irresponsibility’ to foetal ‘patienthood’: Obstetricians-gynaecologists’ perspectives on abortion and its stigmatisation in Italy and Cataluña. Glob Public Heal An Int J Res Policy Pract 2017: 1–13.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28278744

UK

  • Caird L, Cameron ST, Hough T, Mackay L, Glasier A. Initiatives to close the gap in inequalities in abortion provision in a remote and rural UK setting. J Fam Plan Reprod Heal Care 2015; 42: 68 LP-70.
    https://jfprhc.bmj.com/content/42/1/68
  • Francome C. Irish Women Who Seek Abortions in England. Fam Plann Perspect 1992; 24: 265–8.

https://www.jstor.org/stable/2135856?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

  • Gerdts C, DeZordo S, Mishtal J, Barr-Walker J, Lohr, Lohr PA. Experiences of women who travel to England for abortions: an exploratory pilot study. Eur J Contracept Reprod Heal Care 2016; 21: 401–7.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27539129

  • Heller R, Purcell C, Mackay L, Caird L, Cameron ST. Barriers to accessing termination of pregnancy in a remote and rural setting: a qualitative study. BJOG An Int J Obstet Gynaecol 2016; 123: 1684–91.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1471-0528.14117/abstract

Data and statistics on abortion from countries of interest

France

Germany

Italy

Spain

UK

Abortion laws and legal documents

Studies on abortion laws

European level laws and legal documents

Country level laws and legal documents

Our findings

 

Share your Story

We are aware of the great difficulties that women who want to interrupt their pregnancy in Europe have to face. That’s why we invite you to share your experience with the project team. With your help, we will be able to improve the study and create a community useful information for all.

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    Europe Abortion Access Project Euroe Research Council Universitad de Barcelona

    This project has received funding from the European Reseach Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme BAR2LEGAB-680004